MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (KARELA) EXTRACT - MONOGRAPH  
 
Karela consists of fruit of Momordica charantia Linn.; a monoecious climber found throughout the country often under cultivation, upto an altitude of 1500 m. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) has traditionally been used as a remedy for lowering blood sugar in patients with diabetes. Preliminary data exists on bitter melon use in HIV and cancer. Extracts and powdered formulations of the fruit are most frequently used, although teas made from the stems and leaves are sometimes recommended.
 
  English: Bitter gourd  
  Vernacular: Karela  
  Part Used: Fruit  
  Family:Curcurbitaceae  
  Indication:Metabolic Health  
  Pharmacology :  
 
Momordica charantia:It is good to increase the appetite, as digestive aid, Liver stimulant, as stomachic, as gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, and mild laxative. Haritaki has proven gastrokinetic effect i.e. it helps in moving the contents of stomach earlier. The fruits are stomachic and carminative, tonic and have alternative properties. It is also used in heart diseases, respiratory diseases, pain, fever, inflammation, piles, anemia, diabetes and gastric disorders
 
 
Traditional Uses:Traditionally it is used in fever, jaundice. It is mainly used in diabetes. Bitter melon is also consumed as a foodstuff and is found as an ingredient in some south Asian curries. The raw fruit is available in specialty Asian markets where it is known as karela.
 
  Marker constituents:Bitter compound  
 
Mode of Action: Firstly its effect over the gluconeogenic enzymes, and second it may exert its action on the transporters of glucose. Vicine, charantin, and polypeptide-P in both animals and humans increase glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, and improve glucose tolerance. Studies with hepatic enzymes in mice revealed reduction in glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity, and increased glucose oxidation by G6PDH pathway. Bitter melon displays cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells in vitro (guanylate cyclase inhibitor). The MAP30 extract has a cytostatic effect on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells xenografted into mice. MAP30 also demonstrates dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 integrase leading to poor viral DNA integration, thus inhibiting T lymphocyte and monocytes.
 
  Presentation: Pack of 1 kg, 5kg & Bulk pack, blackish brown colour dry powder extract with > 1.0% bitter  
  Storage: Store in cool dry place  
  Shelf Life: Best before 3 years from manufacturing date.  
     
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Issue No. :   QAS/12/K-28
 Page No :  01 OF 01
 Revision  No. :    00 
 
 Analytical Specification
 
 Issue Date :  January 2009
 Review Date :  January 2011
 Title :  MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (KARELA) DRY EXTRACT (> 1.0% BITTER)
 
 Part Used :  Fruit
 Ratio :  10:1
 Fresh / Dry :  Dry
 
 Sr.No.  Test  Limits  Protocol
01.  Description  Blackish brown colour dry powder with characteristic  odour
02.  Identification
 Identification  Compared with standard By TLC
03.  Physical Chemical Test (As per API)
 3.1 Loss on drying  (%w/w)  Not More Than  5.0%  As per API method
 3.2 Water Soluble  Extractive (%w/w)  Not Less Than  70.0%
 3.3 pH of 1% w/v  solution  5.00-7.00
 04.  Heavy metal Analysis  (As Per WHO & FDA Guideline)
 4.1 Lead  < 10 ppm  AAS
 4.2 Cadmium  < 0.3 ppm
 4.3 Arsenic  < 10.0 ppm
 4.4 Mercury  < 1.0 ppm
 05.  Microbiological Analysis  (As Per WHO & IP 2007 Guideline)
 5.1 Total Microbial  Count  < 107 cfu gm-1  As per INH  method
 5.2 E.Coli (1 gm)  Absent
 5.3 Salmonella (1  gm)  Absent
 5.4 Pseudomonas  aeruginosa (1 g)  Absent
 5.5 Yeast & Molds  < 105 cfu gm-1>
 06.  Phytochemical Analysis
 Assay Of Bitter  Not less Than  50.0%  By Gravimetric Method